Ochroniarz

Ogród Twoich marzeń- to wcale nie takie trudne


Drzewka warto kupić w miejscach takich jak szkółka krzewów kujawsko pomorskie, rośliny tam są lepszej jakości, a dodatkowo, często tańsze. Dzisiaj ogrodach i stylach ogrodowych.

Duży ogród uprawny

Duży ogród uprawny stwarza możliwość zarówno na sadzenie grządek uprawnych, jak i zaprojektowanie bardziej ozdobnego zakątka, w którym będą sadzone drzewa i krzewy ozdobne. Niektóre gospodynie bardzo lubią posiadać dostęp do własnych warzyw, takich jak marchewki, pomidory i ogórki, a także ziemniaki. Sadzą również truskawki i krzewy owocowe, z których zrywają porzeczki, agrest i maliny. W środku ogrodu znajduje się miejsce na duże drzewa, zarówno owocowe, jak i bardziej ozdobne, typu choinki. Na obrzeżach ogrodu, przy jego ogrodzeniu, sadzone bywają różne krzewy ozdobne, które stanowią rodzaj dobrego zamknięcia dla całego ogrodu. Dzięki temu duży ogród uprawny może stać się miejscem nie tylko ciężkiej pracy, ale też odpoczynku i relaksu.

Encyklopedia- sadzonka

Sadzonka, odnóżka ? fragment rośliny (część pędu, korzenia, liść lub jego część), zdolny do rozrostu w nową, w pełni funkcjonalną roślinę. Stosowanie sadzonek jest jednym ze sposobów rozmnażania wegetatywnego1. Sadzonkowanie jest stosowane głównie w sadownictwie i innych działach ogrodnictwa. Czasem mianem sadzonek określa się także wyjęte z gleby i przygotowane do przesadzenia w inne miejsce siewki roślin2.

W zależności od materiału użytego do sadzonkowania rozróżnia się sadzonki: zielne, półzdrewniałe i zdrewniałe. W zależności od miejsca pozyskania wyróżnia się sadzonki: pędowe (w tym wierzchołkowe), korzeniowe i liściowe

Źródło: https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadzonka

Pielęgnacja przydomowego ogrodu

Na większej działce, na której stanął dom mieszkalny, istnieje także możliwość zaprojektowania ogrodu. Taki ogród, jak każdy inny, wymaga odpowiedniej pielęgnacji. Najpierw trzeba wybrać do niego odpowiednie drzewa i krzewy ozdobne, pamiętając o tym, żeby nie stały się one zbyt wysokie zwłaszcza, jeżeli zaraz za naszym ogrodzeniem położony jest dom sąsiadów. Cień padający ze zbyt wysokich drzew mógłby zasłaniać okna sąsiadów, przez co przez cały dzień mieliby półmrok w pokoju, a nasz ogród stałby się powodem kłótni sąsiedzkich. Dlatego musimy również pamiętać o konieczności podcinania zbyt wysokich i rozrosłych drzew. Natomiast dobrze dobrane kwiaty posadzone w ogrodzie będzie można już tylko podziwiać, a ich pielęgnacja powinna stanowić dla nas samą przyjemność.


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In emergency call a plumber


plumbers Tower Hamlets

Wikipedia quote – plumbing:

Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing’s not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade. In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation.

The word derives from the Latin plumbum for lead, as the first effective pipes used in Roman era were lead pipes

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing

Historical plumbing

Plumbing originated during ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese cities as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water and wastewater removal, for larger numbers of people.6 Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to prevent water theft.

Plumbing reached its early apex in ancient Rome, which saw the introduction of expansive systems of aqueducts, tile wastewater removal, and widespread use of lead pipes. With the Fall of Rome both water supply and sanitation stagnated?or regressed?for well over 1,000 years. Improvement was very slow, with little effective progress made until the growth of modern densely populated cities in the 1800s. During this period, public health authorities began pressing for better waste disposal systems to be installed, to prevent or control epidemics of disease. Earlier, the waste disposal system had merely consisted of collecting waste and dumping it on the ground or into a river. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.

Most large cities today pipe solid wastes to sewage treatment plants in order to separate and partially purify the water, before emptying into streams or other bodies of water. For potable water use, galvanized iron piping was commonplace in the United States from the late 1800s until around 1960. After that period, copper piping took over, first soft copper with flared fittings, then with rigid copper tubing utilizing soldered fittings.

The use of lead for potable water declined sharply after World War II because of increased awareness of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was introduced as a better and safer alternative to lead pipes.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing

When the water from the tap is dripping

Our life likes to play tricks, so for this reason it is better to adjust to the fact that not once or twice we have to deal with the hard stuff, surprising and what we are not prepared at all. So perhaps, for example, matters hydraulics. It is known that already dripping tap in many cases demands a visit to our lodgings specialist, and about the worse cases, when everything is flooded, do not even mention. It is important to realize that waiting until all the same fix is foolish. In such situations, you need to act immediately to save what can be saved. After all, our home deserves the best treatment.


Pipes, tubes and plumbing


plumbers Hackney

Boiler – safety safe

To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings. 6

A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety

Repair hydraulic hospital

Building a hospital is this type of building, which must run smoothly at all levels. Therefore, in addition to cleanliness in the bathrooms, also asks a lot of attention on the general state of water supply and sewerage hospital. This can prevent the occurrence of various unforeseen situations that could harm the good functioning of the hospital and the safety of his patients. Every few years should, therefore, check the status of the hospital water supply, sewerage and if necessary exchange the already clogged pipes that belong to the network. All of these activities can be carried out by a team of plumbers working in a nearby factory water and sanitation. From time to time you should also be exchanged sanitation in the hospital.

Plumbing code – Wikipedia:

Plumbing code is a code that provides regulations for the design, installation and inspection of building plumbing and sanitary systems. In the U.S., jurisdictions enact their own codes, some of which are based upon model plumbing codes.1 The most widely adopted plumbing code in the United States is the International Plumbing Code published by the International Code Council (ICC). This code is also used as the basis for the plumbing code of some other countries. Another model plumbing code published in the United States is the Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing_code


Decorative idea for your home


lightweight ceiling coving

How to decorate your house?

Most likely a relatively small part of the population knows what it is that contemporary stucco, that the years of its heyday has long since behind him. This is an area whose genesis dates back to ancient times, when it is the people and, above all, the people in power decided to decorating their buildings, especially government buildings, cultural and religious. Today, also, many people, especially those a little richer, decides to apply these exceptional images in their „four corners”. This approach guarantees the originality of our interior design, so that our guests will be delighted.

Basic knowledge

At their simplest, moldings are a means of applying light- and dark-shaded stripes to a structural objects without having to change the material or apply pigments. The contrast of dark and light areas gives definition to the object.

Imagine the vertical surface of a wall lit by sunlight at an angle of about 45 degrees above the wall. Adding a small overhanging horizontal molding to the surface of the wall will introduce a dark horizontal shadow below the molding, which in consequence is called a fillet molding. Adding a vertical fillet to a horizontal surface will create a light vertical shadow. Graded shadows are possible by using moldings in different shapes: the concave cavetto molding produces a horizontal shadow that is darker at the top and lighter at the bottom; an ovolo (convex) molding makes a shadow that is lighter at the top and darker at the bottom. Other varieties of concave molding are the scotia and congé and other convex moldings the echinus, the torus and the astragal.

Placing an ovolo directly above a cavetto forms a smooth s-shaped curve with vertical ends that is called an ogee or cyma reversa molding. Its shadow appears as a band light at the top and bottom but dark in the interior. Similarly, a cavetto above an ovolo forms an s with horizontal ends, called a cyma or cyma recta. Its shadow shows two dark bands with a light interior.

Together the basic elements and their variants form a decorative vocabulary that can be assembled and rearranged in endless combinations. This vocabulary is at the core of both classical architecture and Gothic architecture.

Decorative moldings have been made of wood, stone and cement. Recently moldings made of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) as a core with a cement-based protective coating have become popular. These moldings have environmental, health and safety concerns that were investigated by Doroudiani et al

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molding_(decorative)#Theory

Molding – definition

Molding, or moulding (Commonwealth), also known as coving (UK, Australia), is a strip of material with various profiles used to cover transitions between surfaces or for decoration. It is traditionally made from solid milled wood or plaster, but may be made from plastic or reformed wood. In classical architecture and sculpture, the molding is often carved in marble or other stones.

A „sprung” molding has bevelled edges that allow mounting between two non-parallel planes (such as a wall and a ceiling), with an open space behind the molding. Other types of molding are referred to as „plain”.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molding_(decorative)


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Nowa elewacja?


tynki sklep

Tynki na elewację ? dlaczego potrzebne?

Bardzo często możemy spotkać się z sytuacją, w której obiekty stanowiące tak zwane stare budownictwo są pozbawione tynku elewacyjnego. Jest to bardzo ważny element wykończenia obiektu i obecnie jest stosowany w każdym nowoczesnym budynku. Nowo pobudowany budynek, pozbawiony tynku elewacyjnego jest uważany za niedokończony. W starym budownictwie był on uznawany za dodatkowy element, ale jednak większość osób w miarę możliwości finansowych stara się o wykonanie tynku zewnętrznego. Spełnia on nie tylko funkcje dekoratorskie, ale także dzięki niemu istnieje możliwość doskonałej izolacji termicznej, ponieważ przed nałożeniem tynku na elewację najczęściej jest przeprowadzane ocieplanie budynków.

Wybór tynku za pomocą programu komputerowego

W dzisiejszych czasach dobór tynku elewacyjnego jest skomplikowaną kwestią tylko ze względu na wyjątkowe właściwości niektórych rodzajów takich produktów oraz niezwykle bogatej oferty producentów tynków elewacyjnych. Istnieją bowiem programy komputerowe, które w dość prosty sposób pozwolą nam przewidzieć, jak będzie wyglądał nasz budynek po zastosowaniu odpowiedniego tynku na elewację. Trzeba przyznać, że tynki elewacyjne są bardzo ważne w wykończeniu wnętrz, ponieważ nieumiejętny dobór tynku może spowodować zepsucie efektu końcowego. Dlatego też wiele osób korzysta z tego rodzaju programów i bardzo ceni sobie takie możliwości.

Estetyka wyglądu zewnętrznego budynku

Można powiedzieć, że dobór odpowiedniego tynku elewacyjnego gwarantuje estetyczny wygląd zewnętrzny budynku. Chociaż wiele osób zwraca szczególną uwagę na to, aby budynek dobrze komponował się w otaczającej go przestrzeni, to jednak nie brakuje przypadków, w których tynki elewacyjne użyte do wykończenia budynku są rażące i budzą sprzeciw wielu osób. Jednak z drugiej strony przy obecnej różnorodności, jaką oferują nam producenci tynków elewacyjnych, trzeba stwierdzić, że właściwie tylko od gustu przyszłego użytkownika budynku zależy to, jaki tynk elewacyjny zostanie wybrany i osoby mieszkające czy przebywające w pobliżu tegoż obiektu zwykle nie mają nic do powiedzenia w tej sprawie.


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Czas na remont elewacji


tynk akrylowy

Możliwości wyboru materiału i koloru na elewację

Wybór odpowiedniego materiału, z którego zostanie przygotowany tynk elewacyjny jest bardzo ważny. Dzięki odpowiedniej barwie i strukturze tynku możemy wdzięcznie podkreślić nowo pobudowany budynek. Niezwykłe, zwykle nie pasujące do funkcji, jaką mają pełnić, kolory, najczęściej powodują, że niejedna osoba krytycznie wyraża się na temat elewacji budynku. W tym zakresie wszystko zależy właściwie od fantazji właściciela posiadłości, ponieważ istnieje niezwykle szeroka gama barw i materiałów, z których może zostać przygotowany tynk na elewację budynku. Co prawda, wybór spośród kilkuset kolorów może być trudny, ale jednak wiele osób decyduje się na stonowane barwy i wtedy decyzja jest trochę prostsza.

Dekoracyjne funkcje tynków

Można powiedzieć, że dobór odpowiedniego tynku elewacyjnego gwarantuje estetyczny wygląd zewnętrzny budynku. Chociaż wiele osób zwraca szczególną uwagę na to, aby budynek dobrze komponował się w otaczającej go przestrzeni, to jednak nie brakuje przypadków, w których tynki elewacyjne użyte do wykończenia budynku są rażące i budzą sprzeciw wielu osób. Jednak z drugiej strony przy obecnej różnorodności, jaką oferują nam producenci tynków elewacyjnych, trzeba stwierdzić, że właściwie tylko od gustu przyszłego użytkownika budynku zależy to, jaki tynk elewacyjny zostanie wybrany i osoby mieszkające czy przebywające w pobliżu tegoż obiektu zwykle nie mają nic do powiedzenia w tej sprawie.

Możliwości przewidzenia wyglądu końcowego obiektu budowlanego

W dzisiejszych czasach dobór tynku elewacyjnego jest skomplikowaną kwestią tylko ze względu na wyjątkowe właściwości niektórych rodzajów takich produktów oraz niezwykle bogatej oferty producentów tynków elewacyjnych. Istnieją bowiem programy komputerowe, które w dość prosty sposób pozwolą nam przewidzieć, jak będzie wyglądał nasz budynek po zastosowaniu odpowiedniego tynku na elewację. Trzeba przyznać, że tynki elewacyjne są bardzo ważne w wykończeniu wnętrz, ponieważ nieumiejętny dobór tynku może spowodować zepsucie efektu końcowego. Dlatego też wiele osób korzysta z tego rodzaju programów i bardzo ceni sobie takie możliwości.


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Water emergency – plumbers


plumbing Hackney

Boiler – safety safe

To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings. 6

A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety

About plumbing code

Plumbing code is a code that provides regulations for the design, installation and inspection of building plumbing and sanitary systems. In the U.S., jurisdictions enact their own codes, some of which are based upon model plumbing codes.1 The most widely adopted plumbing code in the United States is the International Plumbing Code published by the International Code Council (ICC). This code is also used as the basis for the plumbing code of some other countries. Another model plumbing code published in the United States is the Uniform Plumbing Code published by IAPMO.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing_code

Replacement of sanitary facilities in the hospital

Building a hospital is this type of building, which must run smoothly at all levels. Therefore, in addition to cleanliness in the bathrooms, also asks a lot of attention on the general state of water supply and sewerage hospital. This can prevent the occurrence of various unforeseen situations that could harm the good functioning of the hospital and the safety of his patients. Every few years should, therefore, check the status of the hospital water supply, sewerage and if necessary exchange the already clogged pipes that belong to the network. All of these activities can be carried out by a team of plumbers working in a nearby factory water and sanitation. From time to time you should also be exchanged sanitation in the hospital.


Motor maintenance and car service


vehicle emissions

How to replace motor oil by yourself

Minor repairs in the car can be performed independently. Some drivers like to spend long hours in the car and to repair its minor defects, sometimes even specifically looking for a class at the car and like to pick at those parts that do not require repair, and only minor amendments. This is why we exchange seals for automobiles, and older cars with V-belt. Visits to the site does not require repair car doors, especially if it is enough grease to make it very not cracked at the time of closing. Some drivers also like to spend time on the selection of a good engine oil, which then pour into the car, on the occasion of clearing some of its parts.

Gasoline definition

Gasoline „???s?li?n”, also known as petrol „?p?tr?l” outside North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives.

On average, a 42-gallon barrel of crude oil (159 L) yields about 19 US gallons (72 L) of gasoline when processed in an oil refinery, though this can and does vary based on the crude oil source’s assay.

The characteristic of a particular gasoline blend to resist igniting too early (which causes knocking and reduces efficiency in reciprocating engines) is measured by its octane rating. Gasoline is produced in several grades of octane rating. Tetraethyllead and other lead compounds are no longer used in most areas to regulate and increase octane-rating, but many other additives are put into gasoline to improve its chemical stability, control corrosiveness and provide fuel system ‚cleaning,’ and determine performance characteristics under intended use. Sometimes, gasoline also contains ethanol as an alternative fuel, for economic or environmental reasons.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline

Car definition

A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. Most definitions of the term specify that cars are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels with tyres, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods. The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car


Praca i nauka geodety


Budowa, nieruchomości i działki to niektóre z domen geodety. Z tego powodu geodezja lubin to idealny wybór dla tego typu usług.

Cytat z Wikipedii o uprawnieniach geodezyjnych

Uprawnienia geodezyjne ? uprawnienia nadawane przez Komisję Kwalifikacyjną ds. Uprawnień Zawodowych w Dziedzinie Geodezji i Kartografii. Egzaminy składają się z części pisemnej oraz ustnej. Po pozytywnym wyniku egzaminu dana osoba otrzymuje tytuł zawodowy geodety uprawnionego (do wykonywania samodzielnych funkcji w dziedzinie geodezji i kartografii).

W dotychczasowej procedurze nadawane były następujące zakresy uprawnień (pierwsze dwie cyfry oznaczają rok wprowadzenia w prawie danego zakresu, a trzecia cyfra oznacza zakres):

841 ? pomiary sytuacyjno-wysokościowe i opracowanie ich wyników
842 ? rozgraniczenia i podziały nieruchomości (gruntów) oraz sporządzanie dokumentacji do celów prawnych
843 ? geodezyjne pomiary realizacyjne i inwentaryzacyjne
844 ? geodezyjna obsługa inwestycji
845 ? geodezyjne urządzanie terenów rolnych i leśnych
846 ? szacowanie nieruchomości gruntowych
847 ? fotogrametria naziemna

Źródło: https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uprawnienia_geodezyjne_w_Polsce

Droga edukacji geodety

Geodeta musi być bardzo dokładny i sumienny, bez tego nigdy nie będzie dobrym geodetą. Dodatkowo w geodezji wykorzystuje się bardzo skomplikowane obliczenia matematyczne, więc bez dobrej znajomości matematyki wyższej trudno będzie takiemu geodecie zdać państwowe egzaminy potwierdzające kwalifikacje zawodowe.

Aby zostać geodetą należy ukończyć odpowiednią szkołę oraz zdać egzamin państwowy. Dopiero po jego zdaniu geodeta może wykonywać swój zawód.

Nie ma lekko…

Dokładne wyliczenia, gdzie nie ma miejsca na błędy, chodzenie z ciężkim sprzętem mierniczym bez względu na pogodę i znajomość mnóstwa przepisów budowlanych. Tak można w skrócie podsumować pracę geodety. Nie brzmi łatwo prawda?

W rzeczywistości faktycznie nie jest lekko, ale ponoć do wszystkiego można przywyknąć i się nauczyć. A geodeci za swoją nie raz ciężką pracę dostają całkiem przyzwoite pieniądze. Jest to jednak taka branża, gdzie nie każdy odnajdzie się bez problemów.


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Water emergency


plumbing Ealing

Boiler – is that safe?

To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5

Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.

A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety

Create a home network plumbing

During the construction of the house you need to perform a variety of hydraulic works. The most important is to create a home network, water and sewage, and then connect it to the next sanitation. The currently built homes are usually showers or baths with unusual shapes, as well as the sink and the same trays or bidets. In a separate room is mounted toilet bowl and sink, which must also be connected to the mains water and sewage. Well connected to the entire system must also be placed on the bathroom floor of the house. Before putting a home network plumbing to use it is still well tested by plumbers who want to home owners have not had any problems with it.

Configurations of boiler

Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive „kettle” where a fire heats a partially filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues?an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety.

Water-tube boiler: In this type, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations. Often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator in which the tube is permanently filled with water. In a flash boiler, the tube is kept so hot that the water feed is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers had some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .

Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,citation needed but have met with little success in other countries.

Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Configurations